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Ontological Appropriation: Boulez and Artaud | EX0-114 Practice Test and exam Cram

In his 1963 article ‘Dire, jouer, chanter’, Pierre Boulez (1925–2016) explained his use of definite unique sounds in Le Marteau sans maître. ‘I chose this “physique” of devices with the impact of added-European civilizations’, he wrote: ‘the xylophone transposes the African balafon, the vibraphone refers back to the Balinese gender, and the guitar recollects the jap koto’.Footnote 1 The composer insisted, however, that ‘neither the fashion nor the very use of these instruments is linked in any method to the traditions of these different musical civilizations’.Footnote 2 Boulez did not wish to represent the tune of peoples outdoor Europe as an ethnologist may when organizing artefacts right into a colonial exhibition. somewhat, once purified of context, these sounds would ‘enrich the european sonic vocabulary through further-European listening’, and, Boulez hoped, have a clean and estranging effect on the listener acquainted with usual western timbres. With this movement, Boulez also hoped to sever his chosen sounds and harmonies from the ancient baggage of the classical subculture, and accordingly to make bigger the presence of tune in its second. in this endeavour he took a cue from the creator of the Theatre of Cruelty. ‘tune should still be collective hysteria and enchantment’, wrote Boulez in 1947, ‘violently contemporary – following the path of Antonin Artaud, and not a simple ethnographic reconstruction in the image of civilizations greater or much less remote from us’.Footnote 3

What does it mean for a composer to take sounds from the ethnographic other with out ‘reconstructing’ the other? this article will argue that Boulez's endeavour to aestheticize the ‘hysteria’ he perceived within the lifestyle of the other turned into a second of ontological appropriation, turning the different into sound. Composers of artwork music had long sought sparkling styles and new sounds through reconstructing a non-European different, no matter if through Mozart's imitations of Turkish music, the exoticized characters of Bizet's Carmen, or the rhythmic counterpoint that drew Debussy to Javanese Gamelan. I suggest that these endeavours to think about and to applicable ‘added-European’ sounds grew to become specifically ‘ontological’ by way of the mid-twentieth century. Boulez's intention turned into not to reconstruct a particular other. somewhat, sound changed into the other: it emanated from someplace bizarre and primitive, carrying a visceral immediacy that may well be leveraged to puncture the façade of western musical meaning. Boulez sought a compositional formulation that might, to use his personal term, render sound neutral: a sonic color as opposed to a musical sign; a ‘pure’ first-class rather than a representation.Footnote four i'll argue that Boulez's compositional method prefigured contemporary claims on behalf of the ontology of sound: that sound can put us in touch with an international extra precise, or in all probability that sound easily is the true. This seek pure sound, a ordinary refrain of twentieth-century musical modernism, is, and all the time has been, inherently ethnocentric. it is a method of constructing sound ontological.

whereas the question of otherness is seldom addressed in scholarship on Boulez, it is apparent that his sense of sound developed as he reconstructed ‘added-European’ expressions in sonic kind.Footnote 5 in the first component to this article, i take advantage of Artaud as a foil to explore how Boulez's concept of musical writing – or écriture, his medium to jot down sonic ‘hysteria’ – took form as he distilled and sublimated otherness. whereas Boulez credited Artaud with forging a method of expression that would re-create ‘collective hysteria and enchantment’ with out desiring to realist ethnographic representation, the composer endeavoured to push Artaud's expressive vogue past what even the theatre guru had achieved. For Artaud frequently stated the sources of his ‘delirium’: he mimicked the rituals of the Rarámuri tribe of Mexico, infusing his performances with cries, gasps, and ululations, a mode of vocal performance that smartly captured, as Boulez put it, ‘the primary preoccupations of song today’.Footnote 6 Boulez's exoticism, in contrast, became greater veiled: in place of follow Artaud to intensify the alterity of the different, Boulez sought in its place to purify or occlude otherness, a stance that can also be seen as continuous with surrealism.

The method Boulez took to sound could be known as ‘ontological’ as a result of he handled sound as whatever more ‘precise’ – greater evocative and powerful – than anything else that had been, or can be, expressed during the normative musical languages of the western culture. In what follows, i will first suggest that Boulez's philosophy of writing hinged on an ideological distinction between ‘the West’ and the relaxation, after which will follow the composer to South the us with the Compagnie Renaud-Barrault to hear how he filtered sounds from an ‘further-European’ supply that he on no account stated outright: Afro-Bahian Candomblé. i will be able to imply that Boulez modelled the poetics of 1 movement of Le Marteau sans maître, the ‘Commentaire I de “Bourreaux de solitude”’, on the ritual of spirit possession he witnessed in Bahia in the enterprise of actor and director Jean-Louis Barrault (1910–ninety four). unlike Barrault, who claimed that the Candomblé embodied the essence of Greek tragedy, Boulez neither wanted nor cared to turn the Candomblé into an allegory for an usual western essence. The ‘delirium’ of Candomblé practitioners in the throes of actual spasms and amid abrupt vocal utterances – the types of experiences that Artaud emulated without delay – took sonic kind in Le Marteau. As Boulez modelled the ‘Commentaire’ on a fictive narrative of spirit possession, I indicate, sound became an allegory, a figure for an long-established essence and a form of elemental drive.

Boulez's sounds are still with us these days. Following Christoph Cox or Nina sun Eidsheim, one could argue that a supra-audible ‘sonic flux’ or truth of vibrating be counted exists beyond human belief, a virtual floor for the sounds that we actualize after we make tune.Footnote 7 The concluding component of this text means that each student who holds that sound is a link to the actual, to a reality past or behind what we can be aware of and signify, implicitly relies on a notion of sound as allegory – a inspiration that links sound stories to Boulez and a group of his contemporaries in France. This perspective towards sound, regularly touted as a method to consider past entrenched West-versus-East and Self-versus-different dualisms, dangers re-inscribing these dualisms on an ever-deeper stage. The difficulty isn't with thinking imaginatively about sound, however with the philosophical theory that courses students to take sound as an allegory for certainty and fact: ontology.Footnote 8

The time period ‘ontology’ has enjoyed a resurgence of late as a marker of a kind of cultural relativism following the ‘ontological turn’ in anthropology and as a substitute for ‘aesthetic autonomy’ in sound stories. despite the fact, i'm not satisfied that the theory of ontology can also be purged of its background as a ‘philosophy of vigor’, to cite a phrase from Emmanuel Levinas.Footnote 9 The very idea of ontology presupposes a relation between the knower and the wide-spread such that the conventional entity, by means of fitting an object of capabilities and a determine of western writing, loses its alterity.Footnote 10 Levinas coined the term ‘ontological imperialism’ to describe the grasping egotism in which ‘the West’ constitutes itself by first imagining after which incorporating the other.Footnote eleven To the extent that Boulez tried to transmute ‘added-European’ sounds into the realm of musical writing, he was an ‘ontological imperialist’. He constituted a concept of sound, now not by means of representing the different as different, however by subsuming the different into the identical. recent scholarship, too, treats sound as a figure of radical alterity, yet sonic allegory turns into a means to bolster scholarly authority. the hunt for ‘pure’ sound has an unacknowledged modernist history.

Boulez, Artaud, and the ethnographic different

‘by the time he changed into eighteen’, biographer Joan Peyser writes, ‘Boulez had turned in opposition t his father, his country, and every little thing else that had been held up to him as sacred … . He repudiated Catholicism, spouting Latin obscenities when he was inebriated … he under no circumstances studied beneath any one man for any length of time, “detesting the father-son relationship”.’Footnote 12 while this part of Boulez's early life obviously had a robust Oedipal dimension, it became Boulez's defiance of the role of the non secular Father in French society that made him so receptive to Artaud's cries, shouts, and profane challenges to God's judgement.

As Edward Campbell, Peter O'Hagan, and François Meïmoun recount, Boulez saw Artaud study his personal texts at Paris's Galerie Loeb in the summer of 1947, witnessing the dramatist performing the types of vocal expressions that could be recorded via the Radiodiffusion Française later that 12 months.Footnote 13 the printed Pour en finir avec le jugement de Dieu (recorded in November 1947) files Artaud right through a period of speedy actual decay following a collection of electroshock treatments administered in opposition t his will at the Rodez asylum (1943–46).Footnote 14 The forty-minute broadcast contains readings of Artaud's texts by the writer himself, his chum (and later literary executrix) Paule Thévenin, and the actors Maria Casarès and Roger Blin. Censored via Radiodiffusion Française (RDF) simply before its top-rated in 1948 (due in big half to Artaud's inclusion of anti-American rhetoric, ill-timed within the wake of the warfare), Pour en finir allows for us to listen to the voice that Boulez skilled reside that summer season.Footnote 15 In his opening unaccompanied monologue, Artaud shouts in his excessive register: ‘I realized the day prior to this’, and then pauses. His pacing deliberate, his rasping voice swooping low, he describes ‘one of the crucial sensational reputable practices of public American schools’: a ‘sperm examine’ in which all younger boys are required to supply sperm for the govt to build a synthetic army. the us not best manufactured people, however also warships and plastic client products, inaugurating ‘le règne … de tous les faux produits fabriques’ (‘the reign of fake fabricated products’) and changing everything natural with ‘les ignobles ersatz synthétiques’ (‘lousy ersatz synthetics’). These words come on the end of a series of brief phrases by which Artaud crescendos, charging the textual content with belligerent vocal expressions. On fabriques, his voice quivers as if a mocking laugh; on les ignobles ersatz, he tightens his throat, pushing air with huge electricity to provide a guttural growling; and before the remaining syllable of synthétiques, he pauses as if out of breath, separating the closing ‘-que’, a percussive click on, from the relaxation of the phrase. Artaud believed in the tune of spoken utterance, within the voice's capability to create meaning via its personal contours, occasionally bolstering the literal which means of a text or – during this case – working against the that means of the words (‘fabriques’, ‘synthétiques’).Footnote sixteen He rails in opposition t an ersatz, artificial American battle computing device and then introduces a contrasting determine: ‘i love most the people who devour off the very earth the delirium from which they're born.’ His voice shivers; he blurs ‘la terre’ (earth) to sound like ‘le délire’ (delirium); he whispers: ‘I communicate of the Tarahumaras … . therefore you will hearken to the dance of the Tutuguri.’Footnote 17

The collective enchantment that enthralled Boulez became for that reason achieved during the rites of the Rarámuri of the Sierra Tarahumara, whose peyote rituals, Artaud claimed, printed a primordial state of being. After a silence, the next part of Pour en finir starts off as Artaud screams, a pair of drums and a gong accompanying his ululations as he soars into his excessive upper register. This crude ‘ethnographic reconstruction’ of a primitive ritual seems to account, on reflection, for the stammering articulations and lengthy drawn-out pacing of the broadcast thus far: Artaud speaks as if in a trance. Casarès then enters to examine the ‘Dance of the Tutuguri’ text, her enraptured voice vibrating as Artaud's shouts proceed. This textual content describes a ritual through which six Rarámuri guys, every symbolizing a sun, encompass a seventh who races across a primordial land nude upon a horse. The dance culminates with the letting of blood and the ripping of Catholic crosses out of the Mexican soil.

For Boulez, Artaud's alternation of phrases with ‘shouts, noises, or rhythmic consequences’, and his effort to push vocal utterance past what any written textual content can carry, felt like an affirmation of the rising musical language that the composer become in the manner of conceptualizing and putting into practice. ‘i'm not qualified to focus on Antonin Artaud's use of language’, he wrote,

but i will study in his writings the fundamental preoccupations of track today; hearing him examine his own texts, accompanying them with shouts, noises, or rhythmic effects, has proven us a way to have an effect on a fusion of sound and note, how to make the phoneme burst forth when the observe can not achieve this, in short a way to arrange delirium.Footnote 18

Boulez's efforts to ‘take delirium and, sure, arrange it’, despite the fact, masked Artaud's specific exoticism. in all probability we are able to hear whatever thing of Artaud's ‘shouts, noises, and rhythmic consequences’ in the musical language that Boulez solid in his Piano Sonata no. 2 (1948), written after Boulez heard the raving dramatist in adult.Footnote 19 throughout the climax of the fourth and final stream, Boulez prompts the performer to ‘pulverize the sound’ in a short passage composed of a rapid-fire succession of quavers and semiquavers leaping between the severe high and low registers of the piano – rhythmic results. This harried back-and-forth action culminates with abruptly attacked chordal clusters – shouts – before a series of related pitches within the left hand (marked ‘Élargir rapidement’: increasing instantly) winds upwards towards a group of descending dyads within the excessive high range – noises. Boulez commands the pianist to play ‘in a extremely powerful color’, to sound ‘exasperated’, starting up a different phrase of leaps.

Boulez put little inventory in verisimilitude, refusing musical ‘topics’ that his listeners or critics might have taken to represent photographs or scenes in a narrative mode. but youngsters he downplayed the representational characteristic of track – just as he disdained ‘basic ethnographic reconstruction’ – Boulez's musical gestures have been commonly visceral, disturbing an identification between his listeners and performers on a corporeal stage. His early pianistic language could not ‘signify’, however definitely items fast leaps, sweeps, and chordal clusters, modes of assault that had been a part of the composer's endeavour to forge a new form of musical event – a pianism in any other case.

Boulez's thought of écriture, the French term that connotes now not handiest literal inscription however also the symbolic reasoning in the back of it,Footnote 20 took form via a compositional apply that consisted of growing contrasts comparable to that between the leaping assaults of the Piano Sonata no. 2 – in which pitches seem to be either remoted or slammed together – and moments wherein successive notes are smoothly related into lyrical fragments. Boulez's musical language consisted of opposing points like this, a dialectical method to timbre and phrasing that Jonathan Goldman describes via quite a lot of binaries: figure versus constitution (i.e., part versus complete), chord-figure versus interval-scale (i.e., ‘chord’ versus ‘scale’, or vertical versus horizontal development), and smooth versus striated time – the record goes on.Footnote 21 Boulez owed this strategy in part to the voice that we are able to hear in Pour en finir. Rasping and low in a single second, then quietly drawing breath; abruptly shouting and leaping into the falsetto; at last slowing, stuttering, gasping out of breath: this voice is a model additionally for the sonic palette of the Livre pour quatuor (1948–49, 1959–60).Footnote 22 With each circulate structured round a distinction between longer resonant tones and short percussive attacks, the violent oppositions of vocal sounds echo in ever extra summary kind.Footnote 23 the primary 4 bars of circulate 1b of the Livre, for example, characteristic a sequence of intervallic leaps, starting in the viola and echoed via the violin, which maintain lengthy tones within the upper register against a quiet cello attack beneath, pizzicato. After a fermata, the 2d short phrase is abrupt, the cello rushing upward to fulfill the trills and pitch clusters in the violins

Scholarly writing on Boulez, which seldom addresses the question of otherness, is frequently caught in a hermeneutic ‘double bind’. through drawing near the tune as an object that requires laborious decoding (attempting to find the tone rows and tracing their genealogies, for instance), we in all probability leave out some of its most stunning features.Footnote 24 One does not should listen ‘hermeneutically’ to hear that the ethnographic other is easily there within the song; yet when we delve under the surface for compositional processes and deep constructions, the other vanishes. here is a problem that looks to haunt reviews of Boulez (and, greater frequently, of serialism): the rigorous strategies employed in developing this tune appear to demand decoding, as if there's all the time a hidden order behind each musical utterance. however precisely once we interact in decoding, the music's ‘otherness’ is hid.

This double place, i would like to suggest, changed into part of Boulez's assorted mode of appropriation. In contrast with Artaud, who sought to existing the ‘additional-European’ as radically different, Boulez sought to occlude change, and musical writing turned into his medium to achieve this. This mode of appropriation involved a particular angle against sound and writing that Boulez bought partly via Artaud, however also through a larger circulation of which Artaud changed into – at least at first – a component. though he broke from the legitimate surrealist community led by André Breton (1896–1966) in or about 1926, Artaud retained some thing of the surrealist angle in opposition t cultural order and that means. This perspective needed to do with re-assessing ‘the West’ with regards to its newly exhibited others: as James Clifford has counseled, the artefacts imported from France's colonial possessions indicated – to Breton and to different surrealists – that ‘culture and its norms – splendor, fact, reality’ had been purely ‘synthetic preparations, susceptible to indifferent analysis and assessment with different viable tendencies’.Footnote 25 indifferent analysis and evaluation were significant within the rising ‘ethnographic surrealist’ view of cultural order – a view in keeping with which western tradition is basically an arbitrary collection of signs able to be reconfigured and jumbled like objects on display in an ethnographic museum. We might call the surrealist mode of appropriation, then, a symbolic mode, due to the fact the poet became to have interaction with society's signals on a 2d-order degree of observation: fragmenting and juxtaposing verbal signifiers in order, as Breton once quipped, to widen the gaps ‘between the phrases’. throughout the hodgepodge good judgment of the dream, Breton's surrealism aimed to re-acceptable society's indications to new expressive ends.Footnote 26

whereas 2d-order reflection on subculture and its indications changed into an essential element of the ethnographic surrealist outlook, Artaud took a distinct tact: the ‘additional-European’ looks to have impelled him to intensify the primary-order gut reactions you may have within the presence of efficiency. Artaud's mode of appropriation may premier be termed an affective mode by reason of the emphasis he positioned on bodily immediacy: he sought to plunge headlong into the unconscious abyss that Breton's surrealism spread out ‘between the words’. ‘it's elementary to put an conclusion to the subjugation of the theater to the text’, Artaud declared in his 1932 Manifesto of the Theater of Cruelty, ‘and to get well the proposal of a form of enjoyable language half-means between gesture and concept’.Footnote 27 The sound of Artaud's voice, echoing in Pour en finir, offers us a way of how this language changed into to work. words turn into gesture in the course of the act of enunciating them with surprising shouts, leaps, and screams – it is, by filling the gaps ‘between the phrases’ with sound. The normative written programs of western theatre had been hence inadequate to have enough money the kind of expression that Artaud sought to make purchasable. The movements and utterances of Artaud's most beneficial theatre would reside simplest for a second, beyond what can be written and repeated from analyzing a script; hence, ‘allow us to depart textual criticism to graduate college students, formal criticism to esthetes’, he exhorted, ‘and recognize that what has been said is not still to be spoke of … that every one phrases, as soon as spoken, are lifeless and performance best at the moment when they are uttered’. here is why ‘the theater is the most effective area on the earth where a gesture, as soon as made, can on no account be made the same manner twice’.Footnote 28 At stake for Artaud became the rivalry that the lifestyle of the West had been dominated through a theological metaphysics in accordance with which lifestyles on earth – just like the actions on a stage – are subordinate to an usual presence, the Divine observe contained in the texts of the Bible, or the theatrical observe written in a phonetic script. ‘Cruelty’ no longer simplest intended engulfing viewers in a sensory barrage – producing the kinds of visceral gestures that we will hear, for example, when Boulez's pianist ‘pulverizes the sound’ – but also demanded a commitment to staying as shut as viable to the restrict of representability.Footnote 29 instead of confront society on the level of its representations, Artaud dreamed of a pure presence, an excellent of immediacy and un-representability. hence the Theatre of Cruelty, in Jacques Derrida's words, often is the artwork of ‘pure presence as pure difference’: it might stream like a language, carrying a signifying force, yet with out forming iterable signals.Footnote 30 Producing an at all times-renewed effect of presence, a merciless theatre would are seeking for to elide the move and mechanisms of re-presentation.

however, like Boulez, Artaud crucial writing. As we have already seen, ethnographic reconstruction changed into part of how the dramatist enacted his ‘pure presence’, and he predicted Boulez's personal look for a brand new form of writing that could organize the delirium that Artaud imagined to emanate from Mexico or somewhere else. Artaud saw a imaginative and prescient of this new writing when he witnessed Balinese theatre at the 1931 Exposition coloniale held in the woodland of Vincennes outside Paris. There, the French govt hosted businesses of people from Africa, Oceania, West India, and other colonies to exhibit arts, to make food and crafts – including the Oceanic artefacts that involved Breton – and to perform track and dance like the Balinese spectacles that Artaud witnessed, claiming that the Balinese embodied ‘the conception of pure theater’.Footnote 31 it is unclear (to us) what Artaud in reality saw at the Exposition, although he wrote of Balinese theatre as if it turned into a collage of ritualistic actions, song and poetry, costume and other visible features – all performing before his eyes as a kind of hieroglyphic writing. These ‘non secular signs’, he declared, ‘[strike] us simplest intuitively but with adequate violence to make useless any translation into logical discursive language’.Footnote 32 The non-phonetic writing of Artaud's most efficient theatre would prepare configurations of our bodies and objects, mapping out hobbies; thus it could silence the voice of the absent creator-creator, all in an endeavour to approximate the immediacy of ‘chinese ideograms or Egyptian hieroglyphs’. rather than inscribe talk, staging directions, etc, this writing would without delay deal ‘with objects … like pictures, like phrases, bringing them together and making them reply to each different’.Footnote 33 despite the fact, while this new non-phonetic writing would bypass the written voice of the writer, it might not silence the voice of the actor. far from it: Artaud insisted that the hieroglyph would supply a new region to voice, to the real embodied voice onstage, considering the fact that vocal sounds would no longer be texted, reproducible, and representable. He dreamed of a radically different voice.

Boulez stood at a distance from the symbolic and affective modes of appropriation that characterised Breton's surrealism and Artaudian cruelty, but, as I actually have suggested, Artaud's vocal sounds persisted to echo below Boulez's pen. we are able to hear how Boulez entextualized the ‘delirium’ that he heard in Artaud into an abstract musical language.Footnote 34 however whereas the composer aimed to supply surprising first-order gut reactions via musical violence, he also mirrored – in posted essays and later lectures – on the techniques by which this violence would be produced. He sought a strategy through which to build upon the ‘pure presence’ of Artaudian expression, taking up Artaud's aesthetic finest into an important musical writing. With the emphasis he positioned on writing and structure, for this reason, Boulez placed himself as a part of a lineage of French artists and intellectuals leading from the ethnographic surrealist second of Paris's interwar years towards the mid-century, in which massive theoretical weight became attached to the notion that way of life is written. The surrealist conviction that splendor, fact, and truth are mere products of symbolic arrangements laid the groundwork, as Clifford counseled, for the ‘semiotic’ view of cultural order that possible study, for example, in Roland Barthes's noted claim that ‘everything can be a fable, offered it's conveyed by a discourse’. If culture is a collection of signs, then sorts of discourse – ‘modes of writing or of representations; not simplest written discourse but additionally photography, cinema, reporting, recreation, indicates, publicity’ – inevitably entwine themselves with energy.Footnote 35 Artaud, in in the hunt for a kind of vocal utterance past the ‘mythical speech’ that had upheld bourgeois normativity, gave a particular privilege to sound as a vehicle of transgression – here's the kind of sound we will hear in Boulez.

Boulez's stance in opposition t sound turned into imminently surrealist because it turned into a musical response – albeit a extremely abstract response – to the transgressive aesthetic put forward all the way through the surrealist years. As Clifford wrote, ‘the exotic [was] a major court of appeal towards the rational, the appealing, the common of the West’, enabling thinkers in the surrealist camp comparable to Georges Bataille – inheritor of a transgressive avant-garde spirit that dates again at least to Baudelaire – to deconstruct the hallowed beliefs of western way of life by means of claiming that each cultural norm contains and conceals its obverse. Tonal harmony, on this view, is one European social fantasy among others, tired and two-faced: confront tonal concord with its other – dissonance – or confront first rate with evil, piety with perversion, and you'll see that every norm carries the seeds of its personal dissolution. This valorization of transgression, in Clifford's phrases, ‘[provides] a crucial continuity in the ongoing relation of cultural evaluation and surrealism in France’. The existing article is intended as an entryway to assess the position that music and sound played in organising this transgressive aesthetic – a cultured that links ‘the twenties context of surrealism relevant to a later generation of radical critics’.Footnote 36 The jumble of non-European signals introduced at colonial exhibitions (and later housed in the Musée de l'Homme) not most effective prefigured the semiotic view of cultural order in vogue by Derrida's day, but also cautioned that new and violent sounds – ‘shouts, noises, and rhythmic results’ – may echo from between the cracks in western cultural which means. by freeing a flow of speech through surrealist computerized writing, or by way of shouting, stuttering, and talking in tongues, sound became ‘different’: that which resounds past the norms of pictorial and linguistic illustration, ‘between the phrases’. hence the free play of signs changed into not simplest Oriental, but become principally sonic. here's the Artaud that Boulez found so appealing:

[B]y an altogether Oriental means of expression, this goal and concrete language of the theater can facilitate and ensnare the organs. It flows into the sensibility. leaving behind Occidental usages of speech, it turns words into incantations. It extends the voice. It utilizes the vibrations and traits of the voice. It wildly tramples rhythms underfoot. It pile-drives sounds … . It sooner or later breaks faraway from the intellectual subjugation of the language, by way of conveying the feel of a new and deeper intellectuality which hides itself below the gestures and signs, raised to the honour of particular exorcisms.Footnote 37

Ontological appropriation

In his disavowal of ‘ethnographic reconstruction’, we will experience that Boulez distanced himself from Artaud whilst he drew thought from the theatre theorist. The ethnographic other was not a beneficial choice to ‘the West’ for Boulez. however, as i'm hoping to reveal, Artaud and Boulez each participated in the mutual development of ‘the West’ as opposed to ‘the leisure’, an opposition that undergirded every artist's essential views about their respective media – theatre and song. Boulez's mode of appropriation become ontological as a result of he aimed to reconstruct the ‘hysteria’ of the other at an ontological get rid of from any specific people or place. He whitewashed ‘added-European’ sounds in an endeavour to create what he called ‘pure sounds – fundamentals and natural harmonics’ that could be subsumed inside a musical textile.Footnote 38 This method of purification changed into always part of Boulez's stance against sound, a part of his own transgressive modernist aesthetic. Yet, as this section will demonstrate, the seek a brand new variety of écriture tied Boulez and Artaud to a much older, and explicitly ethnocentric, philosophy of writing.

In apply, Boulez's écriture become a medium to organize delirium, and in idea, too, écriture hinged on a difference between individualized sound and neutral sound, itself a species of a more usual dichotomy between a western self and the ethnographic different. ‘The extra a sound has excellent individual traits, the much less conformable it could be to other sounding phenomena’, as an alternative ‘[preserving] its own particular person profile’, brought up Boulez in a 1994 lecture on the Collège de France.Footnote 39 during this he echoed a trope that he had voiced tons previous in a 1949 preface to John Cage's Sonatas and Interludes. Expressing a deep respect for Cage's use of ‘non-tempered sound areas’ in addition to ‘sound complexes’ in his experiments with the prepared piano, Boulez nonetheless counseled (reasonably subtly on the time) that his American correspondent become barking up the inaccurate tree.Footnote 40 Cage didn't produce pure sound, relying in its place on the individualized characteristics of sounds crafted from inserting bits of metal, screws, and paper clips amid the piano strings. This endeavour, inspiring and clean notwithstanding it became for the younger Boulez, ultimately constituted a regression in musical pondering. In a 1972 conversation with Célestin Deliège well after Boulez and Cage parted methods, Boulez aligned Cage's use of individualized sounds with the twanging and buzzing of the African sanza (or mbira): ‘within the track of some African peoples (not the most highly-developed from the musical factor of view) we find an instrument, the sanza, that has vibrating blades [which] might make up a neutral universe – they form a scale that is fastened and modal, as all African scales are.’Footnote 41 devoid of the mutes and resonant rings that mbira gamers attach to the vibrating blades, the sounds of the blades ‘might’ be impartial, simply as the notes of a piano are neutral earlier than a composer inserts debris between the strings.

Boulez's mention of an African instrument bespeaks the composer's hobby in non-European instruments, an activity that he developed fairly early in his musical life as he honed his composerly knowledge by means of transcribing musics from backyard Europe – a tradition that without doubt recommended Boulez's view of individualized versus neutral sound. all the way through the summer season of 1945, whereas a student at the Paris Conservatoire, Boulez heard Balinese track in a category with Olivier Messiaen, and as he would later account, ‘dreamed, for a second, of specializing in musicology: no longer within the analyze of texts, but in ethnomusicological investigation in reference to a branch of the Musée de l'Homme or the Musée Guimet’.Footnote 42 This became no longer only a dream: after taking note of discs of various non-European musics, Boulez deliberate to go on an ethnological day trip to Cambodia and Laos hosted through the Musée Guimet in 1946, a voyage promptly cancelled because the First Indochina battle broke out that iciness.Footnote 43 In instruction, besides the fact that children, Boulez transcribed a considerable number of songs together with a ‘Laotian song of possession’ for 2 voices.Footnote 44 This became an ethnographic reconstruction within the most literal sense: in line with Luisa Bassetto, the composer possible jotted down this track – as well as others from Cambodia and Cameroon – somewhat rapidly, possibly as a part of a dictation test just before the ethnographic voyage.Footnote forty five Transcriptions like these are precisely what the Boulez of 1947 would surrender as Artaud's voice rang in his ears. easily reconstructing (i.e., transcribing) the sounds of ‘further-European’ ritual or religious practice did not go a long way adequate for the restive composer, who eventually did not are searching for ethnomusicological competencies for its personal sake, but reasonably for the sake of increasing the timbral and rhythmic chances accessible in new song.

Boulez adopted (with the aid of default) a Eurocentric view in response to which musical writing allows for for a degree of abstraction and sophistication unknown in cultures that lack a written musical equipment, and his transcriptions of those songs provide us a hint about what impartial sound got here to suggest for him. while the recordings housed in ethnographic collections – together with those of André Schaeffner, whom Boulez would meet in 1949 and with whom he would correspond for essentially two decades – exerted a particular allure for the composer, he turned into most attracted to exploring what a music of spirit possession might turn into throughout the act of transcribing it and studying its written kind. while Cage (from Boulez's standpoint, anyway) most likely would have believed that the certain features of sounds – Laotian or otherwise – have been unique enough on their own, Boulez felt that in basic terms letting sound be sound (to paraphrase a well-worn Cage-ism) became inadequate. Sound needed to move through the medium of écriture – Boulez's medium – to really develop into tune. there's perhaps no better summation of Boulez's tackle the change between his and Cage's procedures to sounds – and, for our purposes, of Boulez's own feel of the difference between particular person and neutral sounds – than his remark in the 1949 Cage essay: ‘Noise does indeed have a extremely notable immediate physical effect, but utilising here is dangerous, given that its novelty abruptly wears off’.Footnote 46 Noise can strike us powerfully, however only so many times. Buzzing and twanging are insufficient. in order to preserve the instant physical effect of noise, possibly to base a musical language on its visceral presence, a composer must put sound via écriture.Footnote 47

For Boulez, Cage's strategy to sound became not simplest improper; it changed into primitive. ‘In that kind of musical civilization’ – Africa – ‘and with an instrument of this variety’ – the mbira – ‘the procedure has each justification’: those civilizations are standard.Footnote 48 however could be unjust and ‘contrary to the entire evolution of track’ for a european composer ‘to delimit an instrument within incredibly typical and individualized qualities, due to the fact we are relocating further and further within the path of relativity’, that is, towards rendering sound impartial.Footnote 49 most effective impartial sounds can be subsumed into a broader texture, allowing their ‘actual’ individuality to ring.

Of path, Boulez's selected strategy to sound advanced: the violent gestural language of the Deuxième sonate, the device of total serialism during which Boulez composed structures I (1952), and the computer systems in use at IRCAM two many years later, represent diverse moments in Boulez's development – he turned into all the time on the stream. Yet, regardless of the a number of methods that Boulez cultivated, his standard view of sound and writing appears no longer to have changed throughout his profession. ‘neutral’ or ‘pure’ sound become a long-lasting conceit, and due to the fact sound can best be ‘neutral’ once it's written – it truly is, once it passes via écriture – impartial sound is just purchasable to a western composer whereas unwritten ‘extra-European’ sounds are all the time ‘individualized’. The term écriture, hence, not most effective connotes a compositional method – which may additionally alternate through time – but additionally, more fundamentally, encompasses a philosophical view of writing premised on the change, formally and ideologically, between particular person (primitive) and neutral (written) sound. Like considered one of his early influences, Boris de Schloezer, Boulez believed that écriture allowed for an idealization of sound that changed into unimaginable, once once more, in cultures that lack a written language. The identical yr he heard Artaud on the Galerie Loeb, Boulez studied Schloezer's newly published Introduction à J.-S. Bach (1947), during which the musicologist, watching for Boulez's personal perspective towards the mbira, claimed that non-western musical cultures were constrained to the material conditions of their instruments. ‘The primary characteristic of the space elaborated by using western musical lifestyle’, Schloezer trumpeted, ‘is its complete independence from sonorous material.’Footnote 50 although these remarks are available the context of a work committed to Bach, at this moment of the textual content Schloezer's argument turns into broad and sweeping, having greater to do with a necessary view of western versus non-western musical systems than with any selected composer. in the course of the medium of writing, a composer takes a sound as a ‘number’, not as a fabric aspect, amounting to a ‘dematerialization’ of the sound space.Footnote fifty one

It is through Schloezer's affirmation of the western composer's writerly authority – his claim that the ‘artistic act of the artist is to embody this number, to cost it with a undeniable reality, to confer a qualitative value upon it’ – that we can hear the echoes of an previous philosophy of writing. through affirming that western phonetic writing is the Aufhebung or ‘sublation’ of non-western kinds of writing, G. W. F. Hegel performed the kind of ‘dematerialization’ that characterized Schloezer's suggestion of the western sound space. ‘Intelligence expresses itself automatically and unconditionally via speech’, Hegel proclaimed, declaring that hieroglyphic or pictographic scripts are only fabric.Footnote fifty two A pictogram creates that means in the course of the actual hint of a word, whereas phonetic writing prompts the medium of voice, floating free of materiality.

at the same time as Artaud disdained the metaphysics of phonetic writing, he still relied implicitly on this metaphysics. in keeping with this metaphysics – which Derrida famously termed logocentrism – the presence of voice, of vocal sound, gives you western types of writing a privileged ontological reputation.Footnote fifty three although Artaud sought, in his own theory of the theatre, to disavow the representational norms of theatrical writing in ‘the West’ (as he construed it), the theatre theorist's dream of a ‘hieroglyphic’ writing hinged on the equal East–West dualism that Derrida present in Hegel's philosophy. And even if Boulez's personal musical writing changed into certainly not, strictly speakme, ‘phonetic’, écriture became his automobile to subsume expressions drawn from sources backyard of Europe. as a consequence the space between ‘us’ and ‘them’, between ‘the West’ and the relaxation, changed into no longer best affirmed but also served as a fundamental premise of Boulez's musical language during the quite a few degrees of his development. to hear how Boulez ‘dematerialized’ the sounds of Europe's others in a a bit of later section, allow us to observe him to South the us with the Compagnie Renaud-Barrault. in the period following his early come upon with Artaud, Boulez's lifelong quest for ‘pure’ or impartial sound took shape as he heard the percussion of Afro-Bahian ritual, sounds that fuelled his endeavour, as he later put it, to ‘take in’ non-European sounds into the summary and optimum area of western tune.

‘A magical Greece’: Bahian ritual in Le Marteau sans maître

[This], for me, is very critical: that we absorb different cultures not simplest by means of their content, but also by the way they are transmitted through sound.

– Boulez, from a late interviewFootnote fifty four

because the musical director of the Compagnie Renaud-Barrault (from about 1946 to 1956), Boulez encountered many ‘added-European’ sounds. ‘i am already back at work on Le “Marteau sans maître”’, he wrote to Stockhausen in August 1954 whereas on a boat from Brazil to Dakar.Footnote 55 ‘I've brought lower back a haul of ‘unique’ devices: wood bells, double bells made from iron [‘cloches doubles en fer’], Indian flute, little Indian guitar, body drum, bells [‘grelots’], Jew's harp [‘birimbao’] (a really curious instrument from Bahia, however of African foundation).’Footnote 56 This curious assortment supports Boulez's admission that the timbral palette of Le Marteau sans maître derived from sources past the borders of Europe, but the connection between Le Marteau and Brazil goes a step additional. while travelling Bahia all over the Compagnie's tours of 1950 and 1954, Boulez and Barrault witnessed spiritual rituals that the composer brushed aside as ‘ineffectual rites and cults’ and that the actor championed as expressions of the essence of Greek tragedy.Footnote 57 ‘I saw macumba’, Boulez pointed out – a term that refers to many varieties of Afro-Brazilian magico-ritual follow.Footnote 58 ‘Some fully superb issues occurred’, he persevered: ‘I bear in mind now, as an instance, that there became a black man who weighed at least 110 kilos, huge’; after coming into trance, ‘he spun like a spinning top, very at once’, and while ‘all of this … seemed very dangerous and violent now and then, it in the end turned into not in any respect, for the reason that you have got kids from 4- or 5-years historical in the center of it all’.Footnote fifty nine What Boulez and Barrault possible noticed in Bahia turned into a Candomblé xirê or ‘liturgy’. The time period ‘Candomblé’ connotes numerous religious practices of West African starting place.Footnote 60 once imported to Brazil beginning in the early nineteenth century, Candomblé grew to become a fancy syncretism of African and Catholic beliefs – nevertheless today, Yoruba and Fon deities (orixás) are sometimes idolized as Catholic saints. In a later interview with O'Hagan, Boulez expressed awe at the percussion of the general public Candomblé ceremony he witnessed, tons like Barrault, who, in his 1959 Nouvelles réflexions sur le théâtre, described his obsession with the Candomblé after witnessing a person spinning about in a trance.Footnote sixty one

The method through which a being, even if black or Indian, all at once finds himself struggling because the Spirit is transmitted to him; the method during which the medium, after transmitting the Spirit to him, follows alongside this being; the method in which trances are developed; the ‘purified’ calm that follows; the ritual of these nocturnal ceremonies – all of this struck me, and, with the intention to speak, certain me to those mysterious and endearing people.Footnote sixty two

it might seem outlandish to imply that any part of Le Marteau sans Maître, a monolith of self sufficient contemporary tune, became basically modelled after a Candomblé liturgy. while Boulez didn't explicitly cite the Candomblé as a supply for Le Marteau, with the aid of examining the ‘Commentaire I de “Bourreaux de solitude”’ alongside Barrault's account, we most likely discern traces of spirit possession taking musical form.Footnote sixty three Boulez accomplished the ‘Commentaire’ in South the united states, mailing the first achieved draft to his publisher, regularly occurring version, all the way through the 1954 tourFootnote sixty four – and he had already witnessed Candomblé as a minimum as soon as (if not a couple of instances) by means of this element. The poetic arc of the ‘Commentaire’ follows that of the Candomblé xirê – or, at least, looks to observe the ‘ethnographic reconstruction’ of a xirê that possible study in Barrault's Nouvelles réflexions, or see in yet another contemporaneous supply, director Marcel Camus's film Orfeu Negro (1959). while Barrault and Camus every grew to become the Candomblé liturgy into an allegory for a form of timeless (however finally western) spirituality, Boulez relocated the allegory from the degree of representation to the stage of sound, employing what could be called sonic allegory. Of path, Le Marteau does not ‘sound like Brazil’; it is not a literal reconstruction. Boulez neither noted Aeschylus (like Barrault) nor the story of Orpheus (like Camus); as a substitute, I imply that Boulez's sounds grew to become infused with legendary presence via an allegorical use of the Candomblé.

Figures of the Candomblé liturgy described in ethnographic sources align with the essential characters in Barrault's account. In his Nouvelles réflexions, Barrault describes getting into a huge gymnasium and gazing a bunch of white-clothed initiates walk together towards their pai de santo, the leading priest.Footnote sixty five Accompanied by way of the standard beat of a drum – possibly performed with the aid of the grasp drummer, or alabé – the practitioners acquire before their priest, who's seated subsequent to an altar scattered with Catholic relics and a big statue of Christ. ‘The look of the priest and his smile’, writes Barrault, ‘the big Christ's sorrow dominating the table, and the pervasive scent of the incense gave an unusual contact to this small-city cocktail-birthday celebration.’Footnote sixty six

The liturgy that Barrault describes unfolds with a selected pacing and a gradual enhance in intensity – a form of dramatic arc harking back to Boulez's ‘Commentaire’. the outlet bars produce a similarly meditative mood, finished with a subdued processional rhythm (example 1).

instance 1 Opening of ‘Commentaire I de “bourreaux de solitude”’. With variety permission of regular version AG, Vienna.

Warming up with three leaps of a flute, a xylorimba and pizzicato viola taking part in short percussive attacks, the ‘Commentaire’ is a rhythmically layered textile supported by the irregular accents of a frame drum (just like the one that Boulez introduced domestic from Brazil). The score partakes of the cryptographic sublime: with many altering time signatures, the music seems to hide an underlying order. Even devoid of cracking the Boulez code, though, we can hear that the ‘Commentaire’ shares a basic rhythmic characteristic with the Candomblé: an everyday pulse – notated with vertical strains in the rating – to be able to undergird a longer unfolding progression.

In Barrault's account, the usual drum rhythms accompany the practitioners as they sing a ‘canticle’, after which, all through an interval of silence, the leading priest and practitioners start smoking ‘cigars … that stimulate hallucination’.Footnote sixty seven This moment of silence is critical to the general narrative arc of the ritual that Barrault describes, simply as the insertion of a fermata one third of ways in the course of the ‘Commentaire’ prepares floor for the tumultuous part to comply with (example 2).

instance 2 A fermata ends the primary section. With variety permission of customary edition AG, Vienna.

right through the lull, as Barrault debts, a medium elected by way of the excessive priest – perhaps the babakekerê or pai pequeño (‘little priest’) – starts off to walk among the initiates. The drums birth once again; the practitioners sing; the medium wanders among them; and because the canticle turns into greater excessive, at last the medium provokes ecstasy: ‘abruptly one of the crucial choir singers became electrocuted by the medium. Like a wounded man he bent forward and moved inner the circle.’Footnote 68 Following the motions of this provoke, Barrault begins to insert vocal utterances drawn from a a good deal diverse source. ‘allow us to comply with the “wounded” man. at first the others do not observe him … . He appears surprised: “O to to toï”. something like a burning arrow has stuck in the core of his heart’, and with a grimace of pain, he cries ‘Popoï da!’Footnote 69 This ‘wounded man’ starts to writhe, his actions

harking back to sex or of nausea, of carnal trembling or of vomitous expulsing: his mouth is twisted, his eyes bulging out. ‘Apollo! Apollo!’ … . He starts off to whirl circular like a right … his face is completely deformed … . He from time to time appears to be in contact with the Spirit who clings to his neck and speaks to him; he lifts his eyelids and eyebrows to ask: ‘Apollo, god of voyages, where are you leading me?’Footnote 70

After the fermata, an increase in tempo accompanies an intensification in timbre because the subsequent component to the ‘Commentaire’ commences. The xylorimba participant switches to hard mallets and the tambour player to four bongos. Boulez notates the heart beat with triangles and brackets in preference to vertical traces – pulse areas rather than distinct beats – and he inserts temporary pauses: we can think about the wounded man bending to the side for a second before the spasms proceed (instance 3).

instance three A greater extreme part erupts after the fermata. With kind permission of familiar version AG, Vienna.

The ‘Commentaire’ ultimately calms, the normal tempo returning as the bongo player switches returned to the tambour; then decrescendo; then lull to a quiet end. it is the intensification halfway through this circulate, and the next thrashing, jolting rhythms, that betray Boulez's ethnographic source. ‘The candomblé became … most brilliant’, he recounted, presenting ‘a mix of sound: the excitement of the percussion, after which … a calm moment, … at all times with voice – the contrast between percussion-voice, like psalms.’Footnote seventy one The four instrumental voices within the ‘Commentaire’ mirror the 4 leading percussion voices in the xirê: the smallest drum (the lê), the center-sized rumpi, and the bell (agogô) repeat their own assorted patterns, whereas the largest drum, the rum, organizes the choreography. The rum player, in response to Gerard Béhague, spurs practitioners to trance through ideas of dobrar – or diminution, ‘doubling’ the frequency of repetitions – and virar, all at once moving to denser rhythmic patterns.Footnote 72 The intensification halfway in the course of the ‘Commentaire’, a form of virar spurred as the tambour player switches to bongos and as the tempo increases, echoes the variety of rhythmic diminution and timbral intensification in which Candomblé drummers thrust practitioners into bouts of santo bruto – or ‘wild god’, an principally exuberant sort of spirit possession.

This second of spirit possession seems to pose definite questions of an anthropological bent in regards to the Candomblé as a performed event (what is occurring? how do practitioners bear in mind what is happening?) and about the Candomblé's authenticity (does a practitioner actually enter the trance state? does a god in reality possess him?). in the state of ‘wild god’, Béhague continues, initiates appear to turn into ‘horses of the deities’ (exin orixá). The ‘notion-photo’ of a selected deity comes down and ‘mounts’ the devotee who enters santo bruto; via a divination game, the main priest interprets these acts of spirit possession to check which orixá has established the initiate, who henceforth devotes him or (greater frequently) herself to this deity.Footnote 73 Boulez's commentary that the xirê ‘appeared very dangerous and violent at times’ but ‘subsequently become no longer in any respect’, in view that children stroll among the practitioners, had implications that the composer may no longer have intended. Candomblé is itself a form of reconstruction, a deliberate and consciously practised performance in which practitioners can enter a different state of focus, but always with a part of control. Santo bruto permits the phantasm, as David Graeber has written with regards to definite African fetishes, that the obvious magic one witnesses is each a farce and an authentic non secular transformation. both positions appear to coexist, youngsters impossibly: that the Candomblé is ‘mere reveal’ – a god doesn't ‘in fact’ mount its devotee – and that santo bruto is a genuine process of becoming. The writhing body is each an actor and a god ‘in the procedure of construction’.Footnote seventy four

The seeming or actual presence of gods – depending on one's point of view – has allowed the Candomblé to develop into an allegory for a lot of types of spiritual event. In Barrault's account, it grew to be an allegory for an originally western theatrical essence, the ‘wounded man’ embodying the spirit of Aeschylus's medium, Cassandra. In 1954 the Compagnie Renaud-Barrault adapted the Aeschylus trilogy Oresteia, a creation for which Boulez, eagerly at work on Le Marteau, would supply song. In Cassandra's opening utterance of the Agamemnon, ‘Ototoi popoi da; Apollo, Apollo!’, unintelligible, international syllables burst from her lungs as a choir sings, an awful lot as the Bahian refrain accompanies the wounded man's spasms. She calls out to Apollo as she prophesies Agamemnon's impending homicide, quickly to die with him. whereas sketches of the Compagnie's creation, L'Orestie, are scarce, and Boulez's track is incomplete and now not performed, i wonder if Cassandra's ecstasies discovered their means into Le Marteau. based on his and Barrault's plan for the production, Cassandra's prophecy changed into to be accompanied by using a protracted percussion passage (in area of Aeschylus's choir), and you could think about that this tune would have sounded an awful lot just like the ‘Commentaire’.Footnote seventy five

in spite of everything, Barrault whitewashed the Candomblé as an expression of primordial Greek-ness. His account concludes with a vignette of himself, back domestic in Paris. He pulls his replica of Aeschylus's tragedy off the shelf and re-imagines Cassandra's prophetic bouts of hysteria as if she were a Bahian native, believing that the nameless wounded man's cries and spasms revealed a pure and timeless ‘authentic existence’.Footnote 76 A narcissistic projection indeed, the Bahian ritual mirrored for Barrault a deeper Self during the delusion of the different: ‘not whatever thing erudite, now not the famous Greek concord of our grammar colleges, not the Greece of bleached statues, but an archaic, juicy, human, anguished Greece in consistent contact with the mystery of existence: a magical Greece’.Footnote 77

Barrault was not alone in viewing the Candomblé as an allegory for a magical Greece. In Camus's Orfeu Negro, launched the same yr as Barrault's Nouvelles réflexions, the Candomblé becomes a moment in Orpheus's event to the underworld to discover the soul of Eurydice. Set within the mid-twentieth-century slums of Bahia, and featuring Orpheus (played by using Breno Mello) as a black guitarist ready to play at the carnival, Orfeu Negro depicts the Candomblé as an authentic expression of contact between the dwelling and the dead. The gold-clothed Orpheus attends a liturgy led via a cigar-smoking main priest, and which aspects both an altar to Christ and a circle dance by which a female practitioner turns into possessed, writhing and screaming. The Macumba scene culminates as Eurydice's spirit takes possession of an elderly woman standing at the back of Orpheus: Eurydice's acousmatic voice begs him no longer to turn around, and when he inevitably does and sees only an elderly woman, the voice bids Orpheus farewell always.

Boulez in no way credited the Candomblé as an explicit influence on Le Marteau, and certainly not would have stooped to the ‘basic ethnographic reconstructions’ that we will examine in Barrault's Réflexions or see in Camus's film. To take the Boulez of 1954 at his be aware would mean believing that the Candomblé had hardly ever made an affect on him. The natives exhibited ‘some staggering hysterical states’, the composer wrote to Pierre Souvtchinsky, ‘but the rites and cults … addressed to God, to the devil, to the phallus or to the virgin, are at all times ineffectual rites and cults for their own ends’. it is conspicuous that Boulez, at this stage of his construction, distanced himself from Artaud – ‘i am more and more satisfied that Artaud become on fully the wrong track.’ He brushed aside the rituals for a great deal the identical reason that he brushed aside Catholicism (which he should have considered reflected in the Candomblé): worshipping God or the satan, the virgin or the phallus is ‘ineffectual’, in his words, considering the fact that ‘hysteria [is] one of the vital passive states’.Footnote 78 To ‘reconstruct’ hysteria within the method of Artaud's Pour en finir, from this perspective, can be to aspire to a ‘passive state’, whereas Boulez sought whatever greater active and additionally extra summary, musically removed from Bahia. To ‘arrange delirium’ skill to consciously create it, to write down presence.

The accents of Boulez's body drum, not like a Candomblé bell pattern, are rather irregular, rarely an ostinato; the voice of Boulez's flute is neither repetitive nor diatonic within the manner of a Candomblé vocal melody. Yet here is Boulez's composerly conjuring trick. The rhythmic persona of the ‘Commentaire’ mirrors that of the xirê: beginning with a regular pulse interspersed with accents, Boulez follows the poetic arc wherein a practitioner, guided through rhythmic and timbral intensification, enters another state of being. He wrote this being into music. Barrault's all-too-evident allegorization of Candomblé as ‘a magical Greece’ is, I imply, an apt analogy for Boulez's personal (extra covert) appropriation: sound itself grew to become a sort of redemptive western allegory during which Boulez affirmed the mysterious vigor, the fundamental drive, of sound.Footnote 79 Even in Béhague's ethnographic account, the vigor that tune can seem to wield over Candomblé practitioners turns into an oblique allegory for musical autonomy. ‘The immediate call to possession’, he brought up, ‘comes from the track itself’.Footnote 80 tune wields its personal mysterious powers: the effects of the Candomblé drums develop into an allegory for the instant religious power of the music itself, a tacit acknowledgement of the autonomy of musical aesthetics. And ‘the song itself’ become the site of Boulez's own allegorizing.

Musicology has encountered this circumstance earlier than. Boulez appropriated an at the start religious form devoid of its normal spirituality, a bid for musical purity alongside the lines of Igor Stravinsky's disavowal of his personal ethnographic sources. The mythic energy of a springtime rite turns into relocated, via a composer's disavowal of ‘extra-musical’ influences, into the independent area of track. Debunking this modernist fantasy of ‘the tune itself’, Richard Taruskin referred to the various people songs that Stravinsky wrote into Le Sacre du printemps, and proven that Stravinsky invoked the poetics of the ceremony – even if a virgin sacrifice or the wedding depicted in Les Noces – to bring a primitive immediacy of awareness. For Taruskin, Stravinsky's self sufficient song became an endeavour to embody in musical kind a Eurasianist dream of a united Russian spirit and Russian land between Asia and Europe. It become a land floating somewhere within the track itself.Footnote eighty one

For Boulez, too, the primitive state evoked by way of a ceremony beckoned against a sonic utopia, however this utopia became even much less worldly. He didn't call for a new national awareness, nor did he think about that the sounds of the ethnographic different might discover a greater usual or greater gold standard political reality. in its place, his effort to forge the essence of the other's hysteria without representing a particular ‘different’ mirrored in all probability the oldest, purest, and quintessentially western philosophical dream: ontology.

Conclusion: To have done with the judgement of Ontology

[I]n its closure, it is deadly that illustration continues.

– DerridaFootnote eighty two

there's in all probability no more suitable term for Greek essence than ontology. ‘A Greek invention first of all’, to cite Derrida, the term refers to a discourse (logos) about being (on), premised on an ontological difference between particular issues of the realm and their metaphysical ground.Footnote eighty three Drawing from Heidegger, Derrida held that ontology presupposes a change between ‘Seiend (being in English, étant in French, ens in Latin)’, and ‘Sein which skill in French Être, in Latin Esse. In English, there is no method to translate the change between Seiend and Sein’, which is why translators now and again render ‘Seiend as “being” with a lowercase “b” and Sein as “Being” with a capital “B” which is reasonably frustrating’.Footnote 84 Lowercase ‘being’ refers to an entity current in its temporal and spatial specificity – we are able to believe of the particular sounds of Boulez's ‘Commentaire’, or the writhing body of Barrault's imagined ‘wounded man’, as ‘beings’ during this sense – whereas Sein (or Being) refers to a greater summary experience of presence it's presupposed on every occasion one writes. besides the fact that children, as Derrida contended, ‘Être/Sein is nothing’: there is not any single ‘essence’ in which to unite distinct beings, when you consider that ‘which you can in no way locate anything anywhere that we are able to call Sein, and yet Sein is presupposed each time we say “this is a being”’.Footnote 85 This linguistic change between Seiend and Sein became, in Derrida's philosophy, an ontological différance between the signifier – the specific cloth be aware – and the signified, which is foremost and immaterial. via watching that the signifier and signified, like ‘being’ and ‘Being’, imply distinctive and incommensurate temporal orders, Derrida argued that the total of western metaphysics, which ‘has been constituted in a equipment (of idea or language) decided on the foundation of and in view of presence’, had been working below the spell of a fiction.Footnote 86 Presence, or Being, does not ‘exist’ in the strict experience.

Ontology, the bedrock of European philosophy, seems frequently in Derrida to be little more than a video game of writing – although far from inane. it is a discourse that grapples with the character of being during the emblems; it is, via ‘purpose, discourse, calculation, speech – emblems capacity all that – and also “gathering”: legein, that which gathers’.Footnote 87 If a trademarks is a ‘gathering’, ontology gathers many disparate beings beneath the regular feel of Being. here is why, for Levinas, ‘ontology as first philosophy is a philosophy of power’.Footnote 88 Philosophical discourses about Being had all the time been constituted through a manner of appropriation-by way of-assimilation, because an ontology takes kind as the other – whatever thing is outdoor of Being – becomes ‘gathered’ within a western emblems. though Levinas articulated this ‘ontological imperialism’ in the abstract, his political implications had been clear enough. As Europe asserted its ‘being’ through economic exploitation and military domination, ontology arose to legitimize the coherency and highbrow supremacy of ‘the West’. This ‘West’, in turn, held ontology as a ‘pure’ and neutral medium to comprehend the world, in view that ‘Being, without the density of beings, is the gentle through which beings turn into intelligible’.Footnote 89 ‘The West’ gathers itself via subordinating and subsuming some thing doesn't enter this gentle.

Artaud and Barrault had been after a kind of essence: the sensory barrage of the Balinese theatre or the spasms of a Candomblé practitioner became allegories for the Being of theatre. Even for Artaud, this essence become (sometimes) Greek: a Tarahumara ceremony that he witnessed in 1936 became, in his writings, ‘the ceremony of the kings of Atlantis as Plato describes it within the pages of Critias’. He continued:

Plato talks about a wierd ceremony which, as a result of cases that threatened the way forward for their race, was performed via the kings of Atlantis.

besides the fact that children legendary the existence of Atlantis, Plato describes the Atlanteans as a race of magical starting place. The Tarahumara, who're, for me, the direct descendants of the Atlanteans, proceed to dedicate themselves to the observance of the magical ceremony.Footnote 90

All this allegorizing amounted to a navel-staring at delusion that a deeper Self may emerge from the other, a little bit like a Catholic move rising from the Mexican soil. ‘Philosophy is an egology’, Levinas declared, as a result of ontology assumes that change is but a mirage concealing sameness.Footnote 91

by means of disavowing the ‘standard ethnographic reconstructions’ that we are able to hear in Artaud or examine in Barrault, Boulez displaced these specific western allegories onto sound. Sound became ‘radically other’, and écriture grew to be Boulez's ‘impartial medium’. this is ontological appropriation: musical writing becomes the pure easy by which a composer writes the different into the greatest space of western track. ‘true’ sounds, what Boulez known as pure or neutral sounds, emerged for the composer handiest when the specific sonic world that he heard in South the united states, or that he encountered through recordings of Laotian or Cambodian music, had been effaced, neutralized, and made a part of his abstract musical imaginings.

is that this now not how an ontology – any ontology – is made? A method of extraction and inscription makes fact thinkable past faulty appearances, a method of writing that makes the very distinction of reality from appearance possible. youngsters, getting to know Boulez could remind us, to play somewhat along with his personal ideas, that sound does not ‘turn into ontological’ unless it passes via écriture. Ontology is neither a given neither is it a impartial medium – it only seems so, as if to name an ontology is to name what actually is, which is a part of the trick of the term. Ontology additionally cloaks the precise with a shroud of mystery: a veil conceals many actual voices, ‘individualized’ sounds that fall mute each time an ontology comes into being. And this identical veil regularly capabilities as a bolster for scholarly authority. Ontology is a writerly conjuring trick, even though a odd one since it appears so innocuous, connoting the ‘in itself’ of issues – a real sound beyond language; a presence past what we will re-current.

In recent many years, besides the fact that children, many have sought to rescue ontology from its ancient baggage as a philosophy of power. For proponents of the ‘ontological flip’ in anthropology, there are lots of feasible ontologies. The anthropologist's job, in accordance with Eduardo Viveiros de Castro, isn't to ‘[explain] the area of the different’, however as a substitute to ‘[multiply] our world’ – it truly is, to expand the discursive ‘worlds’ of anthropology by way of letting the different continue to be different. ‘The different [is] the expression of a possible world’.Footnote ninety two From this standpoint, ontology is not any longer ‘a discourse (emblems) in regards to the nature of being’, however, as David Graeber writes, has become ‘a be aware for “being”, “way of being”, or “mode of existence”’.Footnote ninety three The state of santo bruto cannot be judged as real or phony if the practitioner belongs to a completely different order of being. Yet, if it is an ‘unlawful stream’, as Viveiros de Castro claims, for the anthropologist to name what appear to be magical moments equivalent to santo bruto either authentic or false, conserving as a substitute we're witnessing a radically other ontology, then the moral container turns into flattened.Footnote ninety four The concept that many other worlds exist, covered from the anthropologist's Eurocentric gaze by means of a shelter known as ‘ontology’, appears to fall into an ethical quandary standard from the days of Franz Boas and his students. If we region the different in a further ‘viable world’ – which is, in spite of everything, of our making – then there is no groundwork for certainty, and no rationale to take the other severely. hence no count number how ‘radical’ or progressive, to cite Paul Rabinow, attempts to construct relativistic theories of cultural difference possibility ‘[leading] – despite their intent – to a kind of nihilism, a reduction of the different to the same’.Footnote ninety five ironically, during this flattened field in which many ontologies turn into equally feasible, ‘ontology’ regains its common that means. If any entity may have or belong to an ontology, then all and sundry and every thing is equally ‘ontological’ (and, then, why no longer have ontology on the seaside? or ontology in bed?).Footnote ninety six even though it might probably appear radical to think of many viable ontologies, as soon as the term is in play, there is simply ever one ontology. It remains a discourse, a light-weight in which to illuminate ‘beings’, making different worlds a part of our personal.

Ontology has now not modified a good deal in view that Derrida or Levinas wrote about ‘the West’. It has most effective turn into a kind of trump card for scholarly authority, due to the fact, as Graeber suggests, ‘the problem with cultural relativism is that it locations people in bins now not of their personal devising’: ontology ‘just substitutes a deeper container’.Footnote 97 within the musicological ‘container’, meanwhile, ontology seems to have ‘imperialized’ how some scholars consider about sound. applying Eduardo Kohn's quite simple definition of ontology – ‘the analyze of “fact”’ – to the look at of sound, we are able to see that sound frequently stands for just that: fact.Footnote ninety eight ‘Noise [is] the floor’, as Christoph Cox writes, ‘that gives the circumstance of opportunity for each articulate sound, as that from which all speech, song, and sign emerge, and to which they return’. Conceiving of the ‘sonic flux’ as an ‘immemorial fabric circulate’ that humans can actualize with the aid of making tune, but which at all times goes past the human, Cox positions noise as Being itself: the variety of presence in which any certain sound or piece of music will also be understood.Footnote 99 United in a mission that Brian Kane termed ‘onto-aesthetics’, Cox holds that sound artwork discloses its own ontological circumstance simply as Nina Eidsheim holds that certain forms of avant-garde apply – equivalent to underwater singing – reveal the vibrational matter at the heart of sound.Footnote 100 while sonic flux resounds beyond human perception, vibration – which is Eidsheim's replace to ‘noise’ – turns into the elusive pure presence underlying what we can symbolize. Ontology, in this experience, is a means to reconfigure subjectivity – ‘if we cut back and limit the world we inhabit’ with the aid of holding to preconceived notions about sound, she argues, ‘we in the reduction of and restrict ourselves’.Footnote 101 A distinction abides between track-as-look (whatever created) and sound-as-reality, and ‘sensing sound’ makes it possible for one to break free of Self-versus-different binaries that continually ‘in the reduction of and limit’ our self.

regardless of these endeavours to ethically remediate the concept of ontology, the resonances between our current-day sonic ontologies and the sonic allegories of Boulez and Artaud's day should make us cautious about the use of ‘ontology’ as a stand-in for fact. Of path, there's a good distance between Artaud's pure theatre and Mexico, as between Bahia and Barrault's magical Greece. with ease describing Artaud and Barrault's writings is satisfactory to uncover the ethnocentric mind-set that we comprehend (by now) to had been part of artistic modernism. however by some means when the ontology of sound is in question it becomes tougher to answer: where is reality and where is appearance? For Clifford, all ethnography is (in some feel) surrealist as a result of ethnography always contains aestheticizing its findings.Footnote 102 The different looks to me through the writing that i know, fitting comprehensible as my illustration; the art varieties and expressions of the other resonate with my notion of my own lifestyle, and as a consequence the different's culture, considered in opposition t mine, becomes a type of paintings. In sum, all culture may also be something of an ethnographic artefact and a piece of paintings, precise as a result of farce.

If all ethnography employs surrealist strategies, as a minimum tacitly, i might project that sonic ontology-making is surrealistic too. Which amounts to a reasonably standard conclusion: ontology-making is, in spite of everything, simply that. A making. nevertheless it is a atypical variety of poiesis, for the reason that ontology claims to current things as they definitely are. thinking via Derrida's conclusions about Artaud, despite the fact, i ponder if ontology ‘basically’ receives us closer to the true. ‘In its closure, it's fatal that illustration continues.’ precisely as he sought to disavow an older metaphysical regime – in Derrida's words, to ‘kill the daddy’, both the non secular Father who judges the area from afar and the author-God who makes theatre into a mere ‘double’ of a metaphysical script – Artaud stayed within metaphysics. As quickly as one acknowledges presence, it's already a representation. Presence is a mirage of the true, an illusory sur-reality vanishing like sound. we are able to see the bounds of illustration, its closure, but we can not movement beyond it. instead, sound reports regularly ‘reconstructs’ an historical modernist conjuring trick. Ontology-making conceals the maker, fitting one other discursive guise for western Writerly Authority. most likely it is time to find a brand new tool. Or rather, possibly it's time to have executed with the conceit that sends us on endless discursive quests for sound beyond the human, or sound ‘publish’-human. let us dispense with reality as soon as and for all.

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